However, because exist many people from various nationalities in the United States the number of bilingual people is increasing through the years. A bilingual person had many…. Bilingual Education in Richard Rodriguez' Aria Richard Rodriguez offers an alternate yet equally profound truth: While our heritage and culture may remain forever tied to and expressed in our native or "home" language, only through the dominant language of our country English in most cases can we achieve a place in society that gives us a feeling that we belong amongst everyone else.
The only way we can truly become a part of our community and fit in is to dominate the current spoken language…. While closely related, cultural literacy branches of from this basic definition to include a more specific definition related to the knowledge of culture. Over the years society has evolved along with the concept of a literate citizen.
Through the first decade of the 21st century we have all supported a critical development of the Hispanic society in the United States. It is not unpredictable to say that the Hispanic are building up a solid and intense impact in all zones, and changing the method for our nation sees in organizations, workmanship, food, and votes. Currently, it is the biggest minority and quickest developing gathering in the United States speaking to right….
The History of Bilingual Education in America
The road to becoming a teacher is a long one, involving post-high school education, people skills, and a desire to change lives. These traits, when accompanied by experience and good techniques, form the foundation for an effective, life-altering educator. Before anything else, teachers must have a desire to impact the lives of their students Education.
Some teachers teach because they want to help…. Because multicultural learning environments exist within our society we must remember that there are those students involved who are English Second Language ESL. Such things to take into consideration comprises how well the students can read, write, and comprehend English. Other consideration may encompass performance anxieties related to student comfort levels with their abilities and the amount of time allocated for them to complete their testing.
Furthermore, the environment in which an ESL…. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Show More. In a request for a six year extension of the law was vetoed by the Governor, who found it lacked " methodological and implementation flexibility.
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Until the passing of Proposition the education of thousands of students that fall into the category of being Limited English , Non English or Transitional students follow the above mentioned guidelines. With the passing of Proposition , English Language Education for Children in Public School, passed and thus the dismantling of Bilingual Education in California took effect as of August of this year.
Those that opposed Proposition tend to agree with authors of multiple studies Krashen, Cunning among them whom argued that bilingual education is the most successful way to acquire the language and integrate in the new culture. Those who are not in favor of Bilingual Education state that English should be the only language taught at school.
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Many feel threatened by a trend toward a bilingual society and hold the traditional belief that bilingualism is a form of illness that affects the mind of the children preventing then from becoming " good American citizens". By , contemporary estimates were that more than 1 million elementary grade students—more than 6 percent of the 16 million elementary grade students at the time—were receiving bilingual instruction in English and another language.
The modern bilingual education era in the United States had its origins in the Cuban Revolution. The bilingual programs they established in Florida were and remain among the most successful in the country. These expatriates did nothing novel, much less radical. In keeping with the American bilingual tradition, they were becoming part of the fabric of American society while maintaining their own distinct linguistic and cultural strands, both in and out of school.
The most important impetus for widespread adoption of bilingual education, however, was the s civil rights movement. Among their principal tenets, as a matter of civil rights, was that the education of Latino children build on their native cultures and include instruction in Spanish.
But on the other, the act was an extension of a legacy reaching back to the 17th-century Polish settlers in Virginia mentioned earlier. For the next 30 years, through different presidential administrations, the status of bilingual approaches to educating language minority students rose and fell. Polemics proliferated. At times, bilingual education was favored, or at least not slated for elimination.
At other times, most recently with the reauthorization of ESEA under the No Child Left Behind Act, bilingual education was left far behind, no longer part of the federal framework for the education of English learners as it had been since Tellingly, under the administration of President George W. Throughout its history, bilingual education has always had its share of doubters and detractors.
Bilingual Education Essay | Bartleby
But have such moves worked? Results suggest not so much. In Massachusetts, the achievement gap has increased somewhat in both grade levels. In contrast, in the country as a whole, where generally bilingual instruction remains an option, the reading achievement gap has decreased by nearly a grade level in fourth grade and has decreased slightly in eighth grade. But even so, the test scores of the 70 percent of English learners who do not become proficient in English each year have plummeted. In California, the rate of English learners considered English proficient has also increased, although very little—from 7 to 12 percent.
One thing is clear, though: restrictive language policies are no silver bullet. As the data reported above suggest, they might even be counterproductive. And, unlike earlier periods in American history, we now have a credible research base to determine whether the American bilingual tradition benefits individuals and society at large. At least six meta-analyses quantitative research syntheses , involving dozens of studies, support this conclusion.
A likely theory to explain these results is that students develop their academic skills most readily in their home language while acquiring English proficiency, and then, as they learn English, transfer what they have learned in the home language to their new language. Other studies have found that, at worst, instruction in the home language produces English results that are no different from results for English learners in all-English instruction, with the added bonus of allowing them to maintain and further develop their home language.
In fact, these were the findings of researchers from Johns Hopkins University in the most experimentally rigorous study of bilingual education conducted to date. Comparable findings have been reported with Mandarin and English speakers in Northern California. Why, then, the opposition to bilingual education? Resistance to bilingual education is sometimes rooted in xenophobia and ethnic prejudice, although clearly not all bilingual education skeptics are prejudiced xenophobes. But the anti-foreign-language and anti-immigrant rhetoric that peaks during periods of increased immigration is clear evidence that nativist sentiments can lead to fears that the use of languages other than English in school will somehow fracture the national identity.
For many Americans, this national identity is tightly bound to speaking English. Liberal historian and John F.
Bilingual Education Essay Examples
Experience and research in the United States and other countries around the world, including Canada, Finland, and Sweden, have demonstrated that children can learn their own and a second or even a third language—for example, French, Spanish, and English; Swedish, Finnish, and English; or Mandarin, Cantonese, and English—and turn out academically and linguistically competent in both, all three, or more.
Canada, despite language-based political tensions that seem to appear occasionally in Quebec, has a relatively seamless approach to bilingualism that spans from school instruction in both English and French to official government business to road signs and to labels on merchandise. Far from being a problem, bilingualism is an asset both to individuals and to society.
Bilingual education a means can help us take advantage of this asset by promoting bilingualism a goal both for English speakers and for students who come from non-English backgrounds. Apart from the obvious intellectual and cultural advantages of speaking two or more languages, bilingualism has been linked to a number of other positive outcomes. In a comprehensive review of 63 studies, researchers from Washington State University found that bilingualism is associated with cognitive benefits such as increased control over attention, improved working memory, greater awareness of the structure and form of language, and better abstract and symbolic representation skills.
Beyond the cognitive benefits, recent studies suggest that bilingualism may also have economic benefits for young adults related to employment, promotion, and earnings. One study has found that fluent bilingualism is associated with a decreased likelihood of dropping out of high school and an increased probability of obtaining a higher status job and higher annual earnings. The economic benefits of bilingualism can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, location, industry, and languages spoken.
For instance, in towns along the U. For instance, fluent bilinguals are more likely than English-speaking monolinguals to gain employment in middle-tier public service roles such as police officers, medical assistants, and receptionists. On the other hand, fluent bilinguals are less likely than their English-speaking monolingual peers to have occupations such as physicians, lawyers, and public safety managers, even at similar levels of education. To the extent that these other factors constrain the advantages bilingualism confers, it appears that bilingual education can also play a role in reducing their effects.
In a review of the research on bilingual education in Canada and the United States, researchers found that bilingual education can have positive effects on intergroup relationships, identity, and self-esteem. The United States has great linguistic resources we are not only failing to use—our schools are actually quashing them, if only through neglect.
Yet only a negligible fraction of these students are in programs that simultaneously nurture their home language while using it to help them acquire English and also to help English-speaking students acquire a second language. Last year, 17 years after California followed by Arizona and Massachusetts began its assault on bilingual education, California state Senator Ricardo Lara introduced a bill in the California legislature, recently approved, to put a proposition on the California ballot that would give students more access to bilingual and even multilingual instruction.
School districts, seeing the benefits bilingual education offers to their students, are also actively fighting for these programs.